Davis, Sir John F., The Chinese: a General Description..., Harper & Brothers, New York, 1836.
Donneley, Ivan A., Chinese Junks and Other Native Craft, Kelley and Walsh Ltd, 1924.
Confucius: author’s sketch based on Peabody Essex Museum original oil painting M1655.
6-pounder field guns: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division.
Manchu bowman: public domain photo from Wikimedia Commons.
Bingham, John Elliot, Narrative of the Expedition to China, Henry Colburn, London, 1843.
Allgood, G., The China War, 1860, Longmans Green and Company, London, 1901.
Nanking Chung Hua Gate: author’s photo of a portion of the wall of Nanking, 2003.
Shanghai native city diagram, Shanghai gazetteer Shang-hai hsien-chih, 1873.